Impact of charging of electrical vehicles on the Norwegian distribution grid and possibilities for demand response
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- Master's theses (INA) 
The increasing popularity of electric vehicles (EVs) may have an impact on the distri- bution network as penetration through EV charging may cause transformer overload. This study analyzes the impact of various EV penetration scenarios on a rural distri- bution transformer in Norway. The results of the case study indicate that although the transformer has sufficient capacity in some scenarios EV charging may lead to overload. Demand response (DR) strategies are proposed to reduce harmful new peaks and min- imize investments in infrastructure upgrade. Both EV stagger charge and household load control were tested in a simulation. I conclude in the case of this particular site the distribution grid has sufficient capacity for EV penetration. Further development in smart grid and demand response technologies is recommended in order to increase grid reliability and efficiency. A review on relevant literature is included to give a better understanding on the subject.