Proposal for design of a Norwegian Monitoring Network for Reference Sites
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- NIVA-rapport 
The present report is a proposal for a preliminary design of a monitoring programme for reference sites for all surface water categories compatible with the requirements in the EU Water Framework Directive. The proposal includes preliminary recommendations of number of sites, parameters, sampling frequency and monitoring intervals. The total number of sites proposed is approximately 400 lakes, 250 river sites and 250 coastal water sites distributed in different ecoregions and types. A tentative budget suggests annual costs for the initial 6-years’ period of 140 mill. NOK, with 30, 20 and 90 mill. NOK for lakes, rivers and coastal waters respectively. For the consequtive monitoring periods, the annual costs decrease to ca. 28 mill. NOK, in which lakes, rivers and coastal waters require respectively 7.5, 5 and 15 mill. NOK. The costs can be further reduced by combining the reference network with ongoing and planned monitoring in Norway and in other Nordic countries.