Occurrence of phthalates and organotins in sediments and water in Norway
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- NIVA-rapport 
NIVA has carried out a study on the occurrence of PVC additives such as phthalates, adipates and organotins in sediment, freshwater, seawater and domestic sewage in southern Norway on the commission of Norsk Hydro, Petrochemicals Division. The actual sampling areas were possible points of discharges from factories with a known use of either phthalates or organotins or both. In addition samples were taken from clean refernce areas and sewage plants. The largest source of phthalates seems to be receiving water to sewage treatment plants. 70 - 90% of the phthalates and adipates are retained in the sludge, which were dominated by DEHP. Background values from clean areas as lake Femunden were about 50 µg/kg of DEHP, and 80 µg/kg in marine sediments from Færder. Octyltin compounds were only found in sediments at two marine locations (Frierfjorden and Brattøya near Halden). The levels of phthalates in Norway are comparable to levels recorded in Sweden. It seems to be no contamination from industry which uses PVC additives in their production.