Shaming and Framing: Norwegian Nongovernmental Organizations in the Climate Change Negotiations
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- CICERO Working Papers 
This paper discusses the strategies chosen by Norwegian-based environmental non-governmental organizations(ENGOs) and their international allies in the Climate Action Network (CAN) in seeking to influence Norway’s behaviour in the UN climate change negotiations. We focus on ENGO activities at the major negotiating sessions and find that the ENGOs for the most part chose not to try to affect negotiation outcomes through influencing the negotiators directly (i.e., lobbying). Instead, they used the negotiating sessions as opportunities to shape the domestic political agenda by transmitting information and arguments to the media. The aim was to indirectly influence Norway’s foreign policy and negotiating position by shaming its government into adopting policies preferred by the ENGOs, and framing the domestic climate policy debate in terms favourable to the NGO’s policies. We show how actions taken in the international and domestic political arenas were closely intertwined in this case, and argue that ENGO influence in international negotiations should be understood with such linkages taken into account. Specifically, we emphasise that the ENGOs’ability to threaten a government’s legitimacy and popular image, as well as their ability to shape domestic actor’s interpretations of international commitments, should be noted as potentially important vehicles of influence over foreign policy and thereby over negotiation outcomes.