An assessment of the Introduction of REDD+ in Tanzania. A case study of the TFCG/MJUMITA REDD+ Pilot Project in the Kilosa District.
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This study is part of the project “Impacts on poverty and sustainable development of the REDD+ architecture: for equity options, growth and for the environment” (POVSUS-REDD). The POVSUS-REDD is aimed at increasing the understanding of how different options for REDD will affect the achievement of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, while benefiting sustainable development and poverty reduction. This thesis is assessing the processes of introducing REDD+ in a pilot in Kilosa district, Tanzania. In Tanzania the POVSUS-REDD project is hosted at Sokoine University of Agriculture through its Faculty of Forestry and Nature Conservation. To study various options for REDD+ in Tanzania, SUA have been cooperated with many actors who implement REDD+ on the ground level, including TFCG/MJUMITA. This thesis studied a project titled “Making REDD work for people and forests in Tanzania” implemented by TFCG/MJUMITA in the Kilosa district of Morogoro region, Tanzania. The objectives of the thesis were; to identify processes that have been initiated in creating new institutions and organizations in the process of introducing and implementing REDD+ in Kilosa. To analyze how local communities evaluate the process involved in the introduction and implementation of REDD+ in Kilosa, including an evaluation of whether it was based on free, prior and informed consent. And to analyze how the implementing organizations - NGOs, public authorities, community organizations - evaluate the changes undertaken and the process involved during introduction of REDD+. The thesis employs two theoretical approaches; the theory of institutions and institutional change and theories about participation. The concept of legitimacy was used as well. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used during the data collection. The quantitative data was collected using surveyed questionnaire from the local people of the studied villages. The qualitative data was collected by using interviews with resources persons from; TFCG/MJUMITA, the villages’ chairpersons, the heads of the VNRCs and the local people. And focus group discussions were used with the local people and the members of the VNRCs. Findings from this study showed two main processes initiated by TFCG/MJUMITA when introducing and implementing the REDD+ pilot project, namely meetings and consultations. These meetings and consultations were held at four different levels; the district level, villages councils levels, sub- village levels and villages general assemblies levels. It was also noted that, there are still some workshops conducted by TFCG/MJUMITA to villagers in general and members of newly formed organizations responsible in executing REDD+. Again findings from this thesis showed that the introduction of the REDD+ pilot project in the Kilosa district, has resulted in both institutional and organizational changes. The institutional changes can be categorized as designed and took the form of new legal rules; these rules are the one now used for access to the forest. Regarding the formation of new organizations responsible for executing REDD+ there were several developments; i.e., the establishment of the REDD+ facilitation team, the Village Natural Resource Committees (VNRCs), Income Generating Activities groups (IGA-groups) and the REDD+ revenue sharing committee. The REDD+ facilitation team was the one responsible in visiting all villages selected by TFCG/MJUMITA to implement REDD+, the VNRCs is the responsible executing organizations at the villages level. The IGA-groups are the ones offering alternative livelihood strategies including chicken rearing, beekeeping, loans and savings, improved cooking stoves etc. and the REDD+ revenue sharing committee was the one responsible for dividing individual dividends. Again changes in organizations were categorized as designed change. Findings did also show that the local people, who are the key actors, were involved at a later stage of the REDD+ project, meaning that not during the proposal writing rather during the implementation phase. And the participation of the local people had many elements of a top-down approach. Again findings showed that the participation of the local people had many elements of functional participation and interactive participation types from Pretty (1995). So this thesis has categorized the participation of the local people during introducing the REDD+ in the Kilosa district as professional guided participation. Also findings showed that in the early stage of introduction of REDD+, there were some disagreements/conflicts between mountain villagers and low land villagers, TFCG/MJUMITA and villagers. The main reasons for those disagreements/conflicts were; reallocations of mountainous villagers to pave a way for establishment of REDD+ forests, the size of land to be saved as reserved and the wrong assumption that TFCG/MJUMITA were there to take villages’ land. It was reported to us that all of the disagreements/conflicts were resolved, after TFCG/MJUMITA offered more information to villagers on the importance of forest conservation and the potential benefits they could get by accepting REDD+. Concerning the evaluation of the processes involved during introducing REDD+ by the local people. I found that the local people are quite happy with how the REDD+ was introduced by TFCG/MJUMITA, especially that FFCG/MJUMITA started introducing the REDD+ project at the sub-village level. But they are still complaining that the payment they received is small and they are not sure when they will receive another amount. Again findings showed that the executing organizations; TFCG/MJUMITA, villages councils and Village natural resource communities of all studied are satisfied with the processes involved and the development so far of the REDD+. But they are all worried if the goals set to be achieved will be reached, due to existence of illegal activities, especially illegal charcoaling and illegal timbering.
The POVSUS-REDD is aimed at increasing the understanding of how different options for REDD will affect the achievement of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, while benefiting sustainable development and poverty reduction. This thesis is assessing the processes of introducing REDD+ in a pilot in Kilosa district, Tanzania. In Tanzania the POVSUS-REDD project is hosted at Sokoine University of Agriculture through its Faculty of Forestry and Nature Conservation. To study various options for REDD+ in Tanzania, SUA have been cooperated with many actors who implement REDD+ on the ground level, including TFCG/MJUMITA. This thesis studied a project titled “Making REDD work for people and forests in Tanzania” implemented by TFCG/MJUMITA in the Kilosa district of Morogoro region, Tanzania.