Biogas production from municipal organic waste, a process of sustainable development in Lahore (a review)
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Proper disposal of municipal solid waste of Lahore is one of the major challenges for responsible waste management authorities. Various studies reveal that about 50 to 70% of the generated waste is collected in Lahore while the rest of the waste lies in the street, walkways and in vacant plots. The collected waste is dumped in the open and uncontrolled landfills without any energy recovery. The present study is a literature review study where an attempt is made to find out sustainable solution for the disposal of municipal organic waste of Lahore. In the present study it is found out that biogas production from the municipal organic waste is a sustainable source of handling the waste. Hence, the biogas production will also help to achieve sustainable development in Lahore due to reducing the gap of demand and supply of electricity shortfall through renewable energy sources (biogas), greenhouse gas emission reduction substituting the fossil fuel and receiving the economic benefits from biogas. Biogas production from municipal solid waste Lahore will improve environmental quality of the surrounding by reducing GHG emission and control the leachate pollution. A rough estimate of the study shows that if 100% of the generated municipal organic waste of Lahore is collected and utilized for biogas production this can produce 352,745.96 m3 biogas/ day. The produced biogas can be utilized for electricity production or upgraded biogas can be used in the vehicles which substitutes the fossil fuel. Of this produce biogas 884MWh electricity can be generated with 35% electric conversion efficiency while 50% of the biogas energy can be utilized for cooling or heating the buildings. In addition to these 18,234,387.4 tons CO2 equivalent/year can be avoided due to changing of current improper waste disposal system to biogas and the substitution of electricity and chemical fertilizer. From the economic point of view biogas production from the municipal organic waste of Lahore can generate revenue of US$ 844.34 billion /year due to the substitution of fossil fuel, chemical fertilizer replacement with digestates and through carbon credit scheme.