(Not) a REDD Light District? : implementation of a REDD Programme in Kilosa District, Tanzania
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This study focuses on the globally emerging REDD+ programme as a way of tackling climate change, and it looks at challenges and implications for implementation at the Tanzanian national level and at the local level trough a case study in Kilosa District. Through semi-structured livelihood interviews and literature reviews we map how REDD would fit within existing national institutional structures. With main funding from Norway and NICFI and with support from UN-REDD and FCPF, a REDD Task Force has been created in Tanzania, a Draft Strategy published, and the National Climate Change Steering Committee and the Forest and Beekeeping Division selected as the main coordinators and managers of REDD in Tanzania. A National Carbon Monitoring Centre and REDD Trust Fund will be made functional to handle MRV and the subsequent financial flow. Much work still remains and policy reform and alignment is necessary especially in ensuring clear property rights and an equal benefit sharing system; stakeholder involvement and national leakage, ownership needs to be increased further both horizontally and vertically; and special care needs to be placed on capacity building and good governance. TFCG and MJUMITA have started implementing PFM as the basis for a REDD policy and they have embarked on establishing village leakage strategy plans to identify the main drivers of deforestation and identify additional benefits to serve as incentives and reduce forest dependence, which overall contributes to 31% of overall income and for one village as much as 54%. However, some important REDD components appear to be lacking, and at present. Not much work has been carried out on building MRV capacity, establishing payment mechanisms or dealing with overall leakage. Pastoralists in the area are still not consulted and additional involvement from them and other stakeholders and district departments is critical. There are huge challenges on creating efficient and equitable benefit sharing system as those with the highest income are very much involved in forest product extraction and other profitable income generating activities they may be extra attracted to REDD money resulting in elite capture. Many of them are often linked to bigger networks of forest product trade. The areas closest to Kilosa Town have the most unsustainable forest use, but also the worst conditions for agriculture. Therefore, improving agriculture here could help, whereas the more remote areas have a much more sustainable use of their forest. They are in a lot poorer and have worse livelihood conditions. We expect that the pilot project can improve livelihood conditions but we worry about its ability to reduce net-carbon emissions, pm account of leakage and high opportunity costs.