Effective hotel leadership: the MLQ and its effects on LMX, extra effort, effectiveness, satisfaction, commitment, motivation and turnover intentions
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- Master's theses (SV-NHS) 
This study focused on staff perceptions of effective hotel leadership. Data were collected by questionnaires from 306 hotel employees from a Norwegian hotel chain (purposive sample). The staff evaluated their closest supervisor’s leadership style on the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ 5X-Short; Avolio & Bass, 2004). The 36 items measure nine leadership dimensions. Furthermore, the Leader-Member Exchange Scale (LMX-7; Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995) was included to measure the relationship between subordinates and their leader. Perceived leadership effectiveness was measured by three sub-scales: “Staff’s willingness to make an extra effort” (3 items); “Perceived leadership effectiveness” (4 items) and “Satisfaction with leadership” (2 items) from the MLQ. Moreover, “Satisfaction with work and life” (2 items), “Motivation” (2 items); and “Commitment” (3 items) were included from the QPSNordic (Pakkin et al, 2008).
Master's thesis in International hotel and tourism management