Ultrasonic Measurement and Characterization of Liquid-Particle Flow
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- PhD theses (TN-IPT) 
Original versionMeasurement and Characterization of Liquid-Particle Flow by Barbara Maria Wrobel, Stavanger : University of Stavanger, 2012 (PhD thesis UiS, no. 171)
This Ph.D. dissertation consists of primary and complementary studies. The primary studies comprise development of ultrasonic methodology for on-line ultrasonic measurement of liquid-particle flow, in terms simultaneous determination of average particle concentration and flow speed. Developed methodology is also useful for liquid-particle flow characterization, like detection of flow turbulence intensity, particle clustering, appearance of air bubbles as a third phase and for study of rheology of fluids. It is based on Ultrasonic Attenuation Spectroscopy and Sound Speed measurements. Basic elements of the Improved Pulsed Broadband Ultrasonic Spectroscopy method for analysis of liquid-particle flow have been studied: selection and testing of experimental setup elements in terms of limitations and measurement sensitivity, design of an ultrasonic pulse that is optimal for detection of small particle and liquidparticle flow measurement, signal acquisition techniques, operations on signals, including averaging techniques and signal conversion and finally study of internal resonances in a test cell. Experimental results of ultrasonic measurement of particle concentration in low concentration water with glass particles flow are presented, as well as influence of flow turbulence on the measurement. Since several effects have been measured simultaneously by one ultrasonic pulse, signal interpretation is complex. It has been discussed with the help of acoustic theories for particulates, physical theory of damped, driven of harmonic oscillator and sediment transport theories, as well as published results and supportive numerical simulations in Matlab. Acoustic field in liquid-particle suspension has been calculated using Comsol Multiphysics finite element software for better understanding of experimental results. Applications are related to flow assurance and petroleum production: monitoring of solids and liquid flow, control of flow dynamics parameters, i.e. concentration and flow speed, detection of flow turbulence. The complementary studies include design of a small scale rotational test cell with annular flow channel, its testing for various applications, flow regime characterization and flow speed measurement using ultrasonic Transit Time Difference method. Cross-correlation of backscattered from particles ultrasonic signals has also been discussed. Acoustic streaming has been performed in different fluids and velocity profiles determined using Particle Image Velocimetry, based on recorded high speed camera images.