Technological changes in the pulp and paper industry and the role of uniform versus selective environmental policy
MetadataShow full item record
- Discussion Papers 
Abstract: Although environmental regulations may imply a cost increase on firm's conventional input factors, such regulations could stimulate the incentives to improve factor productivity. Productivity measures including indicators capturing environmental improvements may also show higher or lower progress than productivity measures ignoring environmental aspects. We apply a Malmquist productivity index approach on micro data for the Norwegian pulp and paper industry, and find that the overall productivity growth accounting for changes in emissions of COD to water is higher than the growth in the productivity measure including conventional inputs only. We find the opposite result when including emissions of acids and climate gases to air. This is probably due to environmental regulations with opposing effects on different emissions. A decomposition of the Malmquist index into a technical efficiency change factor and a technical change component shows that the frontier technology has changed, while the average distance to the frontier has increased. Keywords: Emissions, Productivity change, Paper and pulp, Malmquist index, Frontier technology
PublisherStatistics Norway, Research Department
SeriesDiscussion Papers;No. 357
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Markets where buyers also are sellers : how realized home equity may work as an accelerator of house prices Larsen, Erling Røed (Discussion Papers;No. 618, Working paper, 2010)Abstract: The house price level is a function of buyers’ realized home equity, and buyers’ realized home equity is a function of the house price level. This interdependence follows from the fact that buyers are sellers ...
Larsson, Jan; Telle, Kjetil (Discussion Papers;No. 411, Working paper, 2005)Abstract: The Integration Pollution and Prevention Control (IPPC) directive from the European Union implies that the regulatory emission caps should be set in accordance with each industry’s Best Available Techniques ...
Removing policy based comparative advantage for energy intensive production. Necessary adjustments of the real exchange rate and industry structure Bye, Torstein; Holmøy, Erling; Heide, Kim Massey (Discussion Papers;No. 462, Working paper, 2006)Abstract: National and international expansion of transmission networks and diminishing returns to scale in hydropower capacity expansion has raised the opportunity cost of electricity. The resulting changes in comparative ...