Revealing demand for nature experience using purchase data of equipment and lodging
MetadataShow full item record
- Discussion Papers 
Abstract: In 1967, John Krutilla suggested a relationship between car camping, canoe cruising, and cross-country skiing and induced demand for wild, primitive, and wilderness-related opportunities. Here, the time trend of cross-section parameter estimates of the relationship is examined. Households produce nature experiences using two factors: nature attributes and tools. Tools are equipment and lodging. While many studies have investigated to-site costs of producing nature experiences, on-site costs such as equipment and lodging are studied here by using Consumer Expenditure Survey data for Norway. Income coefficients of household demand for nature services in independent cross-section samples for each year are estimated over the period 1986-95. Proportions of households with non-zero purchase expenditures for equipment are followed from 1975 to 1995. Similar proportions of lodging expenditures are studied from 1986 to 1995. Out of a total of 526 goods in an exhaustive system, 20 goods are singled out and classified as nature experience tools. Two additional non-good expenses are added. Coefficients of demand are estimated for each year by using a tobit structure and a maximum likelihood procedure. While income coefficients of equipment and lodging are quite stable, household size coefficients are not. Both equipment and lodging remain luxury items over the period 1986-1995. Proportions of households with positive purchase expenditure on tools increase over time: In a referendum-by-wallets, nature experience production has received more votes and become more popular. Keywords: Consumption pattern, environmental valuation, experience production, demand for nature services, willingness-to-pay
PublisherStatistics Norway, Research Department
SeriesDiscussion Papers;No. 305
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Markets where buyers also are sellers : how realized home equity may work as an accelerator of house prices Larsen, Erling Røed (Discussion Papers;No. 618, Working paper, 2010)Abstract: The house price level is a function of buyers’ realized home equity, and buyers’ realized home equity is a function of the house price level. This interdependence follows from the fact that buyers are sellers ...
Larsson, Jan; Telle, Kjetil (Discussion Papers;No. 411, Working paper, 2005)Abstract: The Integration Pollution and Prevention Control (IPPC) directive from the European Union implies that the regulatory emission caps should be set in accordance with each industry’s Best Available Techniques ...
Removing policy based comparative advantage for energy intensive production. Necessary adjustments of the real exchange rate and industry structure Bye, Torstein; Holmøy, Erling; Heide, Kim Massey (Discussion Papers;No. 462, Working paper, 2006)Abstract: National and international expansion of transmission networks and diminishing returns to scale in hydropower capacity expansion has raised the opportunity cost of electricity. The resulting changes in comparative ...