Stress påvirker hjertets rytme. Effekt av musikkterapi og biofeedback
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- Masteroppgaver 
Background: Stress, both at work and in private life, has long been resistant to human development and well-being. Studies indicate that music therapy can help reduce problems in this area, in a cost efficient manner. Method: This is an empirical study in the tradition of quantitative research. The survey was conducted in a district psychiatric centre, DPS, Rogaland, engaged group based teaching mindfulness based Coping, MBC. Thirteen participants, n = 13, distributed by ten women between 24 and 56 years, with an average age of 43.5 years and three men between 35 and 50 years with an average of 43 years. Stress levels among participants were measured at the pulse frequency and Heart rate variability (HRV). It was measured before, during, and after three different activities 1; playing the hand drum, djembe, 2; dealing cards as a control activity to the physical part of drumming and 3; a stressreducing biofeedback program, emWave on the computer. Each of the 117 measurements were recorded using an ear sensor, and stored in the computer program emWave. Results: Difference in pulse rate measured after drumming and after dealing cards, was p <0.07, approaching significance at p <0.05 level. This effect can be interpreted as a stress-reducing effect of the rhythmic element in drumming. Non-significant difference in drumming and card dealing, show that the card dealing was a relevant control activity for the physical part of drumming. Stress-reducing effects of drumming compared to the corresponding physical activity without rhythmic / musical element (card dealing), indicates that the effect is due to the music therapy element of drumming. Significant differences where found in both pulse rate (p = 0.0001) and HRV (p = 0.0054) for measurements during the activities drumming and biofeedback. The same was also true for measurements during activity card dealing and biofeedback, where the results were p = 0.0005 for pulse, and p = 0.0136 for HRV measurements. There were no significant results for the rest of the measurements. Conclusion: The literature study showed stress-reducing effects of music therapy for patients with stress symptoms. Stress-reducing effects of drumming compared to the corresponding physical activity without rhythmic / musical element (card dealing), indicated that the effect is due to the music therapeutic element in drumming activity. As the effect (p <0.07) approaching statistical significance (p <0.05) after only one session, there is reason to believe that a significant effect would be obtained in repeated sessions over time.
Norges musikkhøgskole. Masteroppgave. Musikkterapi