Exercise and well-being among older adults: A self-determination theory perspective
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With an increasing population of older adults there has been increased interest in the fields of both science and politics in improving older adults’ ability to live a valuable and independent life (WHO, 2002; Nelson et al., 2007). Being physically active and exercising seems central improving quality of life and preventing institutionalisation among older adults. However, little is known about how and for whom exercise influences older adults’ well-being. Few studies have examined several types of training simultaneously, and hardly any have included a psychological theory when investigating well-being outcomes among older adults. Such information is important if we are to create effective interventions in the future, and to increase activity among older adults. Objectives: A multidisciplinary study was conducted with the overall aim of investigating the effects of three types of exercise on muscle strength, physical function and indices of well-being among older adults. This thesis examines the effects on well-being. Secondly, there was an aim to identify and test possible mechanisms for the exercise–well-being effect with variables suggested by selfdetermination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985a; 2000).Paper I: Solberg, P. A., Kvamme, N. H., Raastad, T., Ommundsen, Y., Tomten, S. E., Halvari, H., Loland, N. W., & Hallén, J. (2013). Effects of different types of exercise on muscle mass, strength, function and well-being in elderly. European Journal of Sport Science, 13, 112-125.Paper II: Solberg, P. A., Hopkins, W. G, Ommundsen, Y., & Halvari, H. (2012). Effects of three training types on vitality among older adults: A self-determination theory perspective. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13, 407-417Paper III: Paper III. Solberg, P. A., Halvari, H., & Ommundsen, Y. (In press). Linking exercise and causality orientations to change in well-being among older adults: Does change in motivational variables play a role? Journal of Applied Social Psychology. doi: 10.1111/jasp.12088Paper IV: Solberg, P. A., Halvari, H., Ommundsen, Y., & Hopkins, W. G. (In press). A one-year follow-up of effects of exercise programs on well-being in older adults. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity.
Avhandling (doktorgrad) - Norges idrettshøgskole, 2013