Added mass in human swimmers: age and gender differences
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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- Artikler / Articles 
Original versionJournal of Biomechanics. 2010, 43(12), 2369-2373
In unstationary swimming (changing velocity), some of the water around the swimmer is set in motion. This can be thought of as an added mass (Ma) of water. The purpose of this study was to find added mass on human swimmers and investigate the effect of shape and body size. Thirty subjects were connected to a 2.8 m long bar with handles, attached with springs (stiffness k=318 N/m) and a force cell. By oscillating this system vertically and registering the period of oscillations it was possible to find the added mass of the swimmer, given the known masses of the bar and swimmer. Relative added mass (Ma%) for boys, women and men were, respectively, 26.8±2.9%, 23.6±1.6% and 26.8±2.3% of the subjects total mass. This study reported significantly lower added mass (p<0.001) and relative added mass (p<0.002) for women compared to men, which indicate that the possible body shape differences between genders may be an important factor for determining added mass. Boys had significantly lower (p<0.001) added mass than men. When added mass was scaled for body size there were no significant differences (p=0.996) between boys and men, which indicated that body size is an important factor that influences added mass. The added mass in this study seems to be lower and within a smaller range than previously reported ([Klauck, 1999] and [Eik et al., 2008]). It is concluded that the added mass in human swimmers, in extended gliding position, is approximately 1/4 of the subjects’ body mass.
I Brage finner du siste tekst-versjon av artikkelen, og den kan inneholde ubetydelige forskjeller fra forlagets pdf-versjon. Forlagets pdf-versjon finner du på www.sciencedirect.com: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2010.04.022 / This is an electronic version of an article published in Sport, Ethics and Philosophy. In Brage you'll find the final text version of the article, and it may contain insignificant differences from the journal's pdf version. The original publication is available at www.sciencedirect.com: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2010.04.022