Inside out : non-standard work, employment, and diverse interests
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Non-standard work arrangements are identified by an employment relationship that differs from the norm. In the dissertation three main types of non-standard workers are analysed: temporary workers, employees of temporary help agencies, and contract company workers. The dissertation presents empirical findings in five articles on the use of non-standard work arrangements, using theoretical frameworks within sociology and economics. The analyses show that establishments in Norway make greater use of non-standard arrangements than the U.S. establishments. This finding can be explained in part by the greater overall restrictive labour market regulations on hiring and firing regular workers, and the greater demand for temporary labour resulting from generous access to leaves of absence, in Norway. One article illustrates the dilemma that unions find themselves in–generally opposing employment intermediaries–but also recognising the protection they give the regular workers in the firm. A case-study of three Norwegian organizations shows that non-standard workers often are integrated with the regular workers, take care of similar tasks, and are able to form pressure groups in the client-organizations.