Beyond money : intrinsic work motivation in profit and nonprofit organizations
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The purpose of this study is threefold. Firstly, the antecedents of intrinsic work motivation are investigated. The role of job autonomy, relatedness at work, perceived competence and the individual difference of autonomy orientation on intrinsic motivation were explored. Secondly, the purpose of this research is to investigate the link between intrinsic work motivation and the outcome variables performance and turnover intention. Thirdly, the extent to which the two previous objectives are contingent upon type of organizations is examined. The proposed hypotheses are based on Self-Determination Theory, the Job Characteristics Theory as well as a qualitative pilot study. The present study contributes to previous work on intrinsic motivation by contrasting one profit and one nonprofit organization that differ in terms of external (monetary) motivators. Moreover, contribution to the knowledge base on intrinsic motivation in organizations is made by responding to calls for research on social factors influencing motivation and by proposing alternative hypotheses regarding the role of individual differences. The hypotheses and the model were empirically tested on a sample of 261 respondents from one profit and one nonprofit organization within the health sector in Norway. The results showed that job autonomy, relatedness at work and the individual difference of autonomy orientation were positively associated with intrinsic motivation. The alternative hypothesis of autonomy orientation as a moderator variable was not supported. The link between the three antecedents and intrinsic motivation were mediated by perceived competence. A positive relation between intrinsic motivation and performance and a negative association between intrinsic motivation and turnover intention were found. No differences in intrinsic motivation in the two organizations were found. Invariance analyses in structural equation modeling showed that there were no differences in path coefficients between the profit and nonprofit organization. Theoretical and practical implications are derived from this study, and directions for future research are provided.