Changes in meal pattern among Norwegian children from 2001 to 2008
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionØverby, N., Stea, T. H., Vik, F. N., Klepp, K.-I., & Bere, E. (2011). Changes in meal pattern among Norwegian children from 2001 to 2008. Public Health Nutrition, 14(9), 1549-1554. doi: 10.1017/s1368980010003599
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to analyse changes in meal pattern among Norwegian children from 2001 to 2008 in general; to analyse associations between meal pattern and gender, parental educational level and number of parents in the household; and to analyse the association between intake of unhealthy snacks, meal pattern and the mentioned variables. DESIGN: Within the Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) project, two cross-sectional studies were conducted, one in 2001 and one in 2008, where participants from the same schools filled in a questionnaire on meals eaten the previous day. SUBJECTS: Participants were 6th and 7th grade pupils, n 1488 in 2001 and n 1339 in 2008. SETTING: Twenty-seven elementary schools in two Norwegian counties. RESULTS: There were no significant changes in children's meal pattern from 2001 to 2008. For both years more than 90 % of the participants reported that they had breakfast yesterday, while 95 % had lunch, 94 % had dinner and 82 % had supper. More girls than boys reported that they had lunch yesterday (96 % v. 94 %, P = 0Â·03). More children with higher v. lower educated parents reported that they had breakfast yesterday (93 % v. 88 %, P < 0Â·001). More children living with two parents v. one parent had breakfast (93 % v. 88 %, P = 0Â·001) and lunch yesterday (97 % v. 93 %, P < 0Â·001). CONCLUSIONS: There were no changes in meal pattern from 2001 to 2008 among Norwegian children. Characteristics associated with skipping meals were living in a one-parent family and having lower educated parents.
Published version of an article published in the journal Public Health Nutrition. Also available from the publisher at http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s1368980010003599