Standard calibration of echo sounders and integrators with optimal copper spheres
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Calibration of fisheries echo sounders and integrators by means of optimal copper spheres is reviewed. The standard procedure is elaborated. Maintenance of O.1 dB precision is described for a wide range of temperatures and for untuned equipment. The method is illustrated by reference to a calibration exercise of R/V "Michael Sars". The long-term stability of quoted, cumulative calibration results for the same vessel witnesses to the reliability and precision of the method.
SeriesFiskeridirektoratets skrifter, Serie Havundersøkelser
vol 17 no 8