Viral and bacterial diseases of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, their prophylaxis and treatment: a review
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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This review summarises the state of knowledge of both viral and bacterial diseases of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, and their diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment. The most important losses have been at the larval and juvenile stages, and vibriosis has long been the most important bacterial disease in cod, with Listonella (Vibrio) anguillarum dominant among pathogenic isolates. Vaccination of cod against pathogens such as L. anguillarum and Aeromonas salmonicida clearly demonstrates that the cod immune system possesses an effective memory and appropriate mechanisms sufficient for protection, at least against some diseases. Well-known viruses such as the nodavirus that causes viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) have been isolated from Atlantic cod and can be a potential problem under intensive rearing conditions. No commercial vaccines against nodavirus are currently available, whereas vaccines against IPNV infections based upon inactivated virus as well as IPNV recombinant antigens are available. A number of investigations of the pharmacokinetic properties of antibacterial agents in cod and their efficacy in treating bacterial infections have been reviewed.