Ocean pathways in the Arctic
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Introduction: The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), established in 1991, was given the responsibility to monitor the levels and assess the effects of selected anthropogenic pollutants in all compartments of the Arctic. The results from the first phase of AMAP are published in two reports. Firstly, a popular version called «Arctic Pollution Issues: A State of the Arctic Environment Report» and secondly, in the scientific volume: «The AMAP Assessment Report: Arctic Pollution Issues>> This presentation summarise some results on transport mechanisms in the ocean as described in the AMAP reports. The sources of contaminants of interest to AMAP generally lie outside of the Arctic region. Pathways within the three major compartments, the atmosphere, the terrestrial/freshwater and the marine compartments all contribute to the delivery of contaminants to the Arctic. Consequently, an understanding of pollution pathways to- and within- the Arctic are of special concem. The objective of this presentation is to provide a brief summary of the physical processes and pathways, both within and between the main compartments, which determine the fate of contaminants in the Arctic environment as described in chapter 3 of the AMAP Assessment Report (AAR). Special emphasis is given to the conclusions, including lack of knowledge, and recommendations.