• Accounting for differences in choice opportunities in analyses of energy expenditure 

      Halvorsen, Bente; Nesbakken, Runa (Discussion Papers;No. 400, Working paper, 2004)
      Abstract: Zero expenditure poses several challenges when estimating demand systems. Zero expenditure on energy goods occur due to limited opportunity to consume the good or because the household chooses not to use all ...
    • A Complex Interaction between Rickettsia conorii and Dickkopf-1 - Potential Role in Immune Evasion Mechanisms in Endothelial Cells 

      Astrup, Elisabeth; Lekva, Tove; Davi, Giovanni; Otterdal, Kari; Santilli, Francesca; Øie, Erik; Halvorsen, Bente; Damås, Jan Kristian; Raoult, Didier; Vitale, Giustina; Olano, Juan P; Ueland, Thor; Aukrust, Pål (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2012)
      The pathophysiological hallmark of spotted fever group rickettsioses comprises vascular inflammation. Based on the emerging importance of the wingless (Wnt) pathways in inflammation and vascular biology, we hypothesized ...
    • A conflict of interests in electricity taxation? A micro econometric analysis of household behaviour 

      Halvorsen, Bente; Nesbakken, Runa (Discussion Papers;No. 338, Working paper, 2002)
      Abstract: In conducting economic policy, governments generally face conflicts in various objectives, e.g. between efficiency and equity. In Norway, one objective of energy politics has been to reduce electricity consumption, ...
    • Aggregation with price variation and heterogeneity across consumers 

      Halvorsen, Bente; Larsen, Bodil Merethe (Discussion Papers;No. 489, Working paper, 2006)
      Abstract: In the aggregation literature, prices and price and income derivatives are often assumed not to vary across consumers. These assumptions may not be fulfilled: prices often vary and consumers are heterogeneous ...
    • Barriers to progress in REDD preparations. Can high quality satellite data save time and costs? 

      Grimsrud, Kristine; Halvorsen, Bente (Rapporter;2018/28, Report, 2018-08-30)
      This report discusses economic barriers to participation and progress in REDD Readiness preparation among non-Annex 1 forest countries. The report provides an economic-theoretical framework for discussing cost-effective ...
    • Bioavailability of n-3 fatty acids from n-3 enriched foods and fish oil with different oxidative quality in healthy humans – a randomized single meal cross-over study 

      Ottestad, Inger; Nordvi, Berit; Vogt, Kjell Gjermund; Holck, Marianne; Halvorsen, Bente; Brønner, Kirsti Wettre; Retterstøl, Kjetil; Holven, Kirsten Bjørklund; Nilsson, Astrid; Ulven, Stine Marie (Journal article, 2016)
      Regular consumption of long-chain n-3 fatty acids (LC n-3 FA) reduces postprandial triacylglycerolaemia. Functional foods and supplements are alternative sources of LC n-3 FA; however, emulsification technologies, food ...
    • Changes in the pattern of household electricity demand over time 

      Halvorsen, Bente; Larsen, Bodil Merethe (Discussion Papers;No. 255, Working paper, 1999)
      Empirical estimates of long run effects on residential electricity demand from changes in the electricity price are usually estimated by cross-sectional variation in the current stock of electric household appliances across ...
    • Cholesterol crystals activate the lectin complement pathway via ficolin-2 and mannose-binding lectin: Implications for the progression of atherosclerosis 

      Pilely, Katrine; Rosbjerg, Anne; Genster, Ninette; Gál, Peter; Pál, Gábor; Halvorsen, Bente; Holm, Sverre; Aukrust, Pål; Bakke, Siril Skaret; Sporsheim, Bjørnar; Nervik, Ingunn; Niyonzima, Nathalie; Bartels, Emil D.; Stahl, Gregory L.; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Espevik, Terje; Garred, Peter (Journal article, 2016)
      Cholesterol crystals (CC) play an essential role in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. CC activate the classical and the alternative complement pathways, but the role of the lectin pathway is unknown. We hypothesized ...
    • Complement activation by cholesterol crystals triggers a subsequent cytokine response 

      Niyonzima, Nathalie; Halvorsen, Bente; Sporsheim, Bjørnar; Garred, Peter; Aukrust, Pål; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Espevik, Terje (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2017)
      In the host a diverse collection of endogenous danger signals is constantly generated consisting of waste material as protein aggregates or crystalline materials that are recognized and handled by soluble pattern recognition ...
    • Consumers and bioenergy : the effects of behavioural factors in households' heating consumption choice in Norway 

      Lillemo, Shuling Chen (PhD Thesis;2013:63, Doctoral thesis, 2013)
      How energy consumers behave, namely, what type and how much of different energy products and services they consume, direct and indirect affects the environment, as well as personal (and collective) well-being. Understanding ...
    • Cyclodextrin promotes atherosclerosis regression via macrophage reprogramming 

      Zimmer, Sebastian; Grebe, Alena; Bakke, Siril Skaret; Bode, Niklas; Halvorsen, Bente; Ulas, Thomas; Skjelland, Mona; De Nardo, Dominic; Labzin, Larisa I.; Kerksiek, Anja; Hempel, Chris; Heneka, Michael T.; Hawxhurst, Victoria; Fitzgerald, Michael L.; Trebicka, Jonel; Björkhem, Ingemar; Gustafsson, Jan Åke; Westerterp, Marit; Tall, Alan R.; Wright, Samuel D.; Espevik, Terje; Schultze, Joachim L.; Nickenig, Georg; Lütjohann, Dieter; Latz, Eicke (Journal article, 2016)
      Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease linked to elevated blood cholesterol concentrations. Despite ongoing advances in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause ...
    • Cyclodextrin Reduces Cholesterol Crystal-Induced Inflammation by Modulating Complement Activation 

      Bakke, Siril Skaret; Aune, Marie Hjelmseth; Niyonzima, Nathalie; Pilely, Katrine; Ryan, Liv; Skjelland, Mona; Garred, Peter; Aukrust, Pål; Halvorsen, Bente; Latz, Eicke; Damås, Jan Kristian; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Espevik, Terje (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2017)
      Cholesterol crystals (CC) are abundant in atherosclerotic plaques and promote inflammatory responses via the complement system and inflammasome activation. Cyclic oligosaccharide 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (BCD) is a ...
    • Cyclodextrin Reduces Cholesterol Crystal-Induced Inflammation by Modulating Complement Activation 

      Bakke, Siril Skaret; Aune, Marie Hjelmseth; Niyonzima, Nathalie; Pilely, Katrine; Ryan, Liv; Skjelland, Mona; Garred, Peter; Aukrust, Pål; Halvorsen, Bente; Latz, Eicke; Damås, Jan Kristian; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Espevik, Terje (Journal article, 2017)
      Cholesterol crystals (CC) are abundant in atherosclerotic plaques and promote inflammatory responses via the complement system and inflammasome activation. Cyclic oligosaccharide 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (BCD) is a ...
    • Effects of norms, warm-glow and time use on household recycling 

      Halvorsen, Bente (Discussion Papers;No. 389, Working paper, 2004)
      Abstract: The aim of this paper is to quantify the relative importance of motivations based on warm-glow, social and moral norms and cost of time used recycling on household recycling efforts. We also test for crowding-out ...
    • Effects of norms and policy incentives on household recycling : an international comparison 

      Halvorsen, Bente (Discussion Papers; No. 627, Working paper, 2010)
      Increased household recycling is a policy goal in many countries. Household recycling is, to a large extent, based on voluntary efforts. It is thus interesting to understand the mechanisms behind household voluntary ...
    • Estimating consumption and changes in stock applying micro expenditure data 

      Halvorsen, Bente (Discussion Papers; 575, Working paper, 2009)
      The consumption of storable goods does not necessarily equal purchases during a period because of changes in stock. In many cases, we have information about expenditures only, not consumption. A method is developed to ...
    • Evaluering av virkemidler for å fremme energieffektivisering : En oversikt over økonomisk litteratur 

      Bye, Brita; Hagem, Cathrine; Halvorsen, Bente (Rapporter;2016/16, Research report, 2016-04-20)
      For å nå klimamål og mål om redusert energiforbruk, er det de siste tiårene satt i verk ulike tiltak for å fremme energieffektivisering. Ny rapport ser på effektene av ulike offentlige virkemidler. I rapporten kartlegger ...
    • Forsyningssikkerhet, regionale strømpriser og naturvern 

      Halvorsen, Bente (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2011)
      Hvilken rolle spiller markedet for konflikten i Hardanger? I forbindelse med utbygging av ny overføringslinje fra Sima til Samnanger har de politiske konfliktlinjene gått mellom forsyningssikkerhet og naturverninteresser. ...
    • Gender differences in environmental related behaviour 

      Dalen, Hanne Marit; Halvorsen, Bente (Rapporter;2011/38, Research report, 2011)
      This report discusses gender differences in the data collected in the OECD household survey on environmental behaviour. The survey asked a sample of 10 000 respondents from 10 countries (Norway, Sweden, Canada, France, ...
    • Good girl–bad boy : making identity statements when answering a questionnaire 

      Halvorsen, Bente (Discussion Papers;609, Working paper, 2010)
      Environmental policy analyses often draw on stated preferences, with most humans having strong preferences with respect to how we view ourselves and how we would like others to perceive us. This may create systematic ...